Frances Arnold, a member of all three Academies, shared the 2018 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter. She was awarded the prize for her work in “the directed evolution of enzymes.”
“In 1993, she conducted the first directed evolution of enzymes, which are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. Since then, she has refined the methods that are now routinely used to develop new catalysts. The uses of Frances Arnold’s enzymes include more environmentally friendly manufacturing of chemical substances, such as pharmaceuticals, and the production of renewable fuels for a greener transport sector.
Along with George P. Smith and Gregory P. Winter, Arnold has been inspired by the power of evolution and used the same principles – genetic change and selection – to develop proteins that solve mankind’s chemical problems.”