This conference, convened by the National Academy of Medicine and the Predictive Analytics and Comparative Effectiveness (PACE) Center at Tufts Medical Center, explored the inherent limitations of using group data to guide treatment decisions for individuals. Topics included examining HTE as it pertains to personalized decision-making and precision medicine, modifying care in light of personalized evidence, and identifying the highest policy and research priorities to facilitate translation and dissemination of these methods. This conference took a broad view of personalized/precision medicine that seeks to take into account the full gamut of patient-level variation (i.e. not just genetic/pharmacogenetic variation). Conference participants included thought leaders and stakeholders who are developing and promulgating methods for more individualized evidence from academic, government and regulatory sectors. This conference is funded through two Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) Awards: a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) Eugene Washington PCORI Engagement Award (1900-TMC) and the Predictive Analytics Resource Center (SA.Tufts.PARC.OCSCO.2018.01.25).