National Academy of Medicine

What’s Killing Our Children? Child and Infant Mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives

The very vulnerable demographic group of American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) youth face unique and important challenges. We need to hear from native stakeholders and experts in American Indian health about the contextual factors (poverty, low educational attainment, and substance
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Lessons for Health Equity: Military Medicine as a Window to Universal Health Insurance

Health disparities result from multifaceted variables including access to health care and discrimination associated with socioeconomic status, education, social support, insurance, race, ethnicity, and gender. The purpose of this paper is to identify lessons learned and future researc
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Expulsion and Suspension in Early Education as Matters of Social Justice and Health Equity

Scientists have a central role in addressing the challenges that face society. The primary purpose of research should be to inform policies and practices that address serious problems in our nation and world. Today in America, we have an alarming issue that is lacking in both basic an
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Challenges and Promise of Health Equity for Native Hawaiians

Health equity, the attainment of the highest level of health for all people, is yet to be realized for many populations in the United States. Health equity focuses on diseases and health care services, but is also broadly linked to social determinants, such as socioeconomic status, th
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Life Span and Legal/Policy Research as Dual Focuses for Identifying and Implementing Opportunities to Realize Health Equity

Our perspective is grounded in the proposition that health equity should be central or more significant than any other concern, principle, criterion, or value when prioritizing a national scientific agenda, setting care goals, organizing research and evaluation, and formulating practi
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Addressing Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities: A Vital Direction for Health and Health Care

Despite the powerful effects of social and behavioral factors on health, development, and longevity, U.S. health policy has largely ignored them. The United States spends far more money per capita on medical services than do other nations, while spending less on social services. Resid
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Systems Strategies for Better Health Throughout the Life Course: A Vital Direction for Health and Health Care

Health and health care outcomes for Americans should be better for most, and much better for some. This should be possible with currently available knowledge and resources. Capturing the potential will require adapting our strategies and approaches to the reality that health is not im
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Referral System Collaboration Between Public Health and Medical Systems: A Population Health Case Report

Social determinants of health, a short phrase that captures a broad array of issues, are some of the key reasons why health care reform alone will not eliminate health disparities in the United States. Social problems, such as food security, housing, and employment, account for 15 per
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Considerations for a New Definition of Health Literacy

The field of health literacy has evolved over the decades. While early work focused on individual skills (and deficits) and specific products (brochures and documents, for example), we, the authors, have come to a greater appreciation that health literacy is multidimensional—it includ
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Integrating Health Care and Supported Housing to Improve the Health and Well-Being of the Homeless: A Population Health Case Report

Poor health is both a cause and a result of homelessness. According to the National Health Care for the Homeless Council, people who are homeless are three to six times more likely to become ill than those with stable housing and three to four times more likely to die prematurely. The
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