National Academy of Medicine

The Interplay of Community Trauma, Diet, and Physical Activity: Solutions for Public Health

Diet- and activity-related illnesses—such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, and type 2 diabetes—can shorten life spans and adversely impact quality of life. Over the past 15 years, the public health field has made important progress in addressing these illnesses by shifting the focus
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Interventions Aimed at Reducing Antimicrobial Usage and Resistance in Production Animals in Denmark

    Antimicrobial Usage and Interventions: A Brief History from 1950 to the Present Antimicrobials for veterinary purposes came on the market in the 1950s, followed shortly by antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs), because of their growth-enhancing effects to animals when added in sub
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Alternatives to Antibiotics: Why and How

  The antibiotic resistance problem is caused by the evolution and transfer of genes that confer resistance to medically important antibiotics into human pathogens. The acquisition of such resistance genes by pathogens complicates disease treatment, increases health care costs, and in
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Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Starts in Childhood

The importance of good nutrition practices on health and well-being has been recognized for thousands of years. One familiar quote attributed to Hippocrates, “Let thy food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food,” illustrates our long-time appreciation of the important relationship b
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Working Toward Engaging Local Businesses in Community Obesity Solutions: A Preliminary Account from the Field

Childhood obesity continues to be a serious public health concern in the United States. About 12.7 million children and adolescents aged 2–19 years, or 17 percent of the population, have obesity. In addition to genetic and behavioral factors, the environments where children live, lear
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Getting to Equity in Obesity Prevention: A New Framework

High obesity prevalence persists as a major issue for societies globally. Chronic overweight and obesity have high health, social, and economic costs, and the benefits of achieving and maintaining healthy weight for overall health and well-being are well established. Obesity in childr
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A Model Framework That Integrates Community and Clinical Systems for the Prevention and Management of Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases

Obesity now affects 35 percent of men, 40 percent of women, and 17 percent of 2- to 19-year-old children and adolescents in the United States. Neither clinical nor environmental changes alone are sufficient to address a problem of this magnitude. We propose here a framework that integ
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Chronic Disease Prevention: Tobacco, Physical Activity, and Nutrition for a Healthy Start: A Vital Direction for Health and Health Care

Smoking, obesity, inactivity, and excess intakes of added sugar, saturated fats, and salt are major contributors to the rates of chronic disease in the United States, and the prevalence and costs of chronic diseases associated with those modifiable behaviors account for a growing shar
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Can Breastfeeding Protect Against Childhood Obesity?

Breastfeeding offers numerous health benefits to children and women globally. For this reason, international health organizations and American expert groups strongly support this infant feeding behavior. Given the high cost-effectiveness of breastfeeding in the United States, the Amer
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The Power of Postconsumer School Food Waste Audits

I am sure many of you do not want to hear the word “audit” now that tax season is over, but the type of audit I am going to write about can be fun and enlightening. A food waste audit can help any organization better understand how much food, which types of food, and why certain foods
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