National Academy of Medicine

Alternatives to Antibiotics: Why and How

  The antibiotic resistance problem is caused by the evolution and transfer of genes that confer resistance to medically important antibiotics into human pathogens. The acquisition of such resistance genes by pathogens complicates disease treatment, increases health care costs, and in
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The Power of Postconsumer School Food Waste Audits

I am sure many of you do not want to hear the word “audit” now that tax season is over, but the type of audit I am going to write about can be fun and enlightening. A food waste audit can help any organization better understand how much food, which types of food, and why certain foods
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An Environmental Scan of Recent Initiatives Incorporating Social Determinants in Public Health

The foundational importance of social, environmental, and economic factors as determinants of health has long been recognized. Until recently, this recognition had resulted in few sustained, organized efforts to positively influence these determinants to foster health at the community
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Why We Need Climate, Health, and Equity in All Policies

Climate change, health equity, social and environmental justice, sustainability: These are each hugely important and complex issues in their own right. But we cannot afford to address them separately: The root causes are the same, the stakes too high, the need for action too urgent, a
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Opportunity Knocks: Population Health in State Innovation Models

In this discussion paper, the authors describe an emerging opportunity for reorienting the way we pay for health in the United States toward a greater focus on the non-clinical factors that make people healthy, such as the social and environmental conditions in places where people liv
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Seeking Synergy: New Perspectives on Addressing Interrelated Global Health and Development Problems

In September 2000, the United Nations (UN) Millennium Declaration established the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to accelerate efforts to reduce extreme poverty and related barriers to human development. At the Rio+20 World Summit on Sustainable Development, the UN decided to emb
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IOM Announces Perspectives

I am pleased to introduce Perspectives, a new category of written products from the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Perspectives comprise two forms—commentaries and discussion papers—both of which offer observations and opinions of leading experts on developments in health and health car
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Deadly Sins and Living Virtues of Public Health

At a recent meeting for Institute of Medicine (IOM) staff, I delivered a version of my 2011 Frank A. Calderone Prize Lecture, which included reference to the seven deadly sins. As originally enunciated by Pope Gregory I in 590 A.D., the deadly sins are lust, sloth, gluttony, greed, wr
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