National Academy of Medicine

Interventions Aimed at Reducing Antimicrobial Usage and Resistance in Production Animals in Denmark

    Antimicrobial Usage and Interventions: A Brief History from 1950 to the Present Antimicrobials for veterinary purposes came on the market in the 1950s, followed shortly by antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs), because of their growth-enhancing effects to animals when added in sub
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Alternatives to Antibiotics: Why and How

  The antibiotic resistance problem is caused by the evolution and transfer of genes that confer resistance to medically important antibiotics into human pathogens. The acquisition of such resistance genes by pathogens complicates disease treatment, increases health care costs, and in
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Real-World Evidence to Guide the Approval and Use of New Treatments

Research regarding new treatments (drugs, biological products, and high-risk devices) often begins with a broad assessment of disease epidemiology, disease burden, and shortcomings of existing treatments. That research may draw from diverse data sources, including real-world data gene
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Disruptive Innovation and Transformation of the Drug Discovery and Development Enterprise

Declining or stagnant research and development (R&D) productivity has led many observers to argue that the current paradigm for drug discovery and development requires disruptive innovation to break out of a current crisis by identifying and rapidly bringing new discoveries to mar
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FDA and the Media: Lessons from Tysabri about Communicating Uncertainty

Despite a rigorous approval process, there is always uncertainty about newly approved drugs: will the benefits observed in initial approval studies hold up over time?  Will side effects emerge? Uncertainty is amplified when drugs receive accelerated approval based on preliminary evide
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